The pre-condition for leading secondary evidence are that such original documents could not be produced by the party relied such documents in spite of best efforts, unable to produce the same which is beyond their control. The party sought to produce secondary evidence must establish for the non-production of primary evidence. Unless, it is established that the original document is lost or destroyed or is being deliberately withheld by the party in respect of that document sought to be used, secondary evidence in respect of that document cannot be accepted. Rakesh Mohindra v. Anita Beri, 2016 (114) ALR 253.
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Will is an instrument whereunder a person makes a disposition of his properties to take effect after his death and which is in its own nature ambulatory and revocable during his lifetime. It has three essentials:
(1) It must be a legal declaration of the testator’s intention;
(2) That declaration must be with respect to his property; and
(3) The desire of the testator that the said declaration should be effectuated after his death.
The essential quality of a testamentary disposition is ambulatoriness of revocability during the executants lifetime. Such a document is dependent upon executants death for its vigour and effect.
Section 2(h) of the Indian Succession Act says “Will” means the legal declaration of the intention of a testator with respect to his property which he desires to be carried into effect after his death.
Gift/Settlement is the transfer of existing property made voluntarily and without consideration by one person called the donor to another called the done. Gift takes effect by a registered instrument signed by or on behalf of the donor and attested by at least two witnesses. Section 122 of the Transfer of Property Act defines the “gift” as a voluntary transfer of property in consideration of the natural love and affection to a living person. Mathai Samuel v. Eapen Eapen (Dead) by LRs and others, 2013 (118) RD 606.